Exposure to the sun (insolation)
Sudden, intensive and direct exposure to the sun should definitely be avoided. It is wise to avoid direct exposure to sunlight, especially between 11am and 3pm.
Sunscreen should have a high sun protection factor – factor 15 for adults, 30 and more for children – and provide equal protection from UVA and UVB rays. The sunscreen should be applied half an hour before going out into the sun and repeated every two to three hours.
It should be stressed that being under an umbrella in an open environment such as at the beach will still lead to sunburn from reflected UV rays unless additional sun protection measures are employed. Likewise, the sun’s rays do penetrate clouds in significant amounts, and hence there is still a tendency for skin become sunburnt even on overcast spring/summer days.
Clothing provides the best protection from intensive sunlight. Short-sleeved tops are better than sleeveless ones and the material should preferably be tightly woven. It is good to wear a wide-brimmed hat and Polaroid sunglasses (since UV rays are also harmful to the eyes). Today, clothing for children, including swimwear, with inbuilt sun protection (up to factor 50) is available on the market.
Generally, the rule is that skin must be gradually accustomed to the sun’s rays. Skin that has tanned gradually and continuously can sustain UV rays up to 10 times better than untanned skin. Everyone should also know the specific personal protection time that applies to his or her skin type, in other words, how long unprotected exposure to the sun is recommended.